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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 39-46

Analysis of finger and toe prints and their corresponding correlations in the anioma people of Nigeria


Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

Date of Submission03-Aug-2020
Date of Decision12-Oct-2020
Date of Acceptance17-May-2021
Date of Web Publication26-Jul-2021

Correspondence Address:
Beryl Shitandi Ominde
Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology, Delta State University, Abraka
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_48_20

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  Abstract 


Background: A comparison of the finger and toe ridge patterns can reveal their genetic interdependence. This cross-sectional study aimed at analyzing and correlating the corresponding finger and toe ridge counts. Materials and Methods: The hands and feet of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) from the Anioma tribe of Nigeria were scanned with Hewlett placard G4010 photo scanner following ethical approval. Evaluation of the finger and toe prints was carried out using AutoCAD version 2010. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of the Social Sciences version 23 and presented using descriptive statistics. Chi-square test was used to test for association between nonparametric variables while Pearson's correlation was used to assess for the relationship between corresponding finger and toe ridge counts. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The predominant finger and toe ridge patterns were loops (73%, 79.7%) followed by arches (18.4%, 15.1%) and finally whorls (8.6%, 5.2%). There was a significant association between gender and the combined print patterns of all the five digits on a limb (P ≤ 0.05). A significant positive correlation existed between the mean ridge counts of some of the corresponding fingers and toes in females. This correlation was weak in the corresponding 1st right and 1st and 3rd left digits (0 < r < 0.5) (P ≤ 0.05) and strong in the corresponding 3rd to 5th right digits and 2nd, 4th, and 5th left digits (0.5 ≤ r < 1) (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The study has clearly shown that sexual dimorphism is displayed only by a combination of the print patterns in all digits of a limb as against individual digits. Using correlation of digital mean ridge counts, the right 3rd to 5th and the left 2nd, 4th, and 5th digits from either the hand or the foot in females can be used to predict the corresponding digit among the Anioma people of Nigeria, hence their importance in forensic sciences.

Keywords: Correlation, fingerprint, toe print


How to cite this article:
Ominde BS, Jaiyeoba-Ojigho EJ, Igbigbi PS. Analysis of finger and toe prints and their corresponding correlations in the anioma people of Nigeria. J Forensic Sci Med 2021;7:39-46

How to cite this URL:
Ominde BS, Jaiyeoba-Ojigho EJ, Igbigbi PS. Analysis of finger and toe prints and their corresponding correlations in the anioma people of Nigeria. J Forensic Sci Med [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 May 16];7:39-46. Available from: https://www.jfsmonline.com/text.asp?2021/7/2/39/322342




  Introduction Top


Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of epidermal ridges on the volar surfaces of the palms, fingers, toes, and soles.[1] These features consist of arches, loops, and whorls that are genetically determined and inheritable, following a polygenic inheritance.[1],[2],[3] The papillary dermal ridges and furrows on fingers and toes develop at the 16th to 25th weeks of intrauterine life and are fully formed by the 7th month of fetal development.[4],[5] The ridges are influenced by neurovascular pairs at the dermoepidermal junction during prenatal development.[6] Their peculiar arrangement and distribution remain constant throughout life and are not affected by environmental and age factors except in the cases of bruises or cuts at the pulp of the digits.[7] They may also be altered by scars following exposure to radiation, eczema, or scleroderma and are destroyed by decomposition after death.[8]

No two fingers or toe prints even from the same individual or identical twins are exactly alike. They are therefore distinctive, individualistic, and permanent.[5],[9],[10] These features enhance their utility in cost-effective identification by giving a clue about suspects of a crime at a crime scene or identification of unknown human remains following mass disasters and accidents.[4],[7] In medicine, the ridge patterns have been linked to various medical conditions whose genetic basis is not clear.[10] Their utility in the prediction of congenital anomalies and medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus has been explored.[11],[12],[13] Dermatoglyphics have been used to establish racial, ethnic, and sexual differences in various population groups and these have been attributed to their heritability.[14],[15],[16]

During embryonic development, the hands and feet grow together and increase with age. Furthermore, the development of these terminal segments of the appendages is controlled by the same factors. Therefore, a comparison of the fingerprints and toe prints can reveal the genetic interdependence.[17] The hand and foot digits are serially homologous owing to the underlying genetic program that is partially or completely duplicated and expressed in a new place and time during development. They possess matching patterns of variations and share virtually identical developmental blueprint.[18] However, genes and developmental processes affect multiple phenotypic traits, and this may lead to phenotypic variations. With this possibility of digital coevolution and developmental linkages, this study aimed at analyzing the finger and toe epidermal ridge patterns and correlating the corresponding finger and toe ridge counts of the same side in the Anioma people of Delta State in Nigeria.


  Materials and Methods Top


This cross-sectional study design was carried out among the Anioma people of Delta State, South-Southern Nigeria. The Anioma people are one of the major tribes that largely populate Delta State. Ethical approval was obtained from the Research and Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria (DELSU/CHS/ANA/18/118). We utilized simple random sampling technique alongside with Naing et al.[19] prevalence sample size equation. One hundred subjects including 50 males and 50 females were used for this study. Informed consent was obtained from each participant before their involvement in the study. A total of 200 hands and 200 feet with their corresponding 1000 fingers and 1000 toes were studied. Only individuals from the Anioma ethnic group aged 18 years and above were included in this study while those with any form of hand or foot deformity were excluded. In order to maintain confidentiality, individuals were assigned serial numbers.

Hands and feet of each individual were scanned with Hewlett placard G4010 photo scanner for finger and toe print patterns. The scanner was connected to a Hewlett placard laptop via a Universal Serial Bus cord.[16] The fingers were coded as 1D–5D from the thumb to the little finger, respectively, while their corresponding toes were coded 1T to 5T from the big toe/hallux to the little toe, respectively. The ridges were obtained using AutoCAD Version 21; Ontario, Canada, and the prints were subsequently classified into arches, loops, and whorls based on the pattern landmarks of triradii (delta) and ridge counts [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. Accordingly, arches have no triradius and hence zero ridge counts, loops have one triradius and one ridge count, while whorls with two triradii have two ridge counts.[20] The finger and toe print patterns as well as their mean ridge count were recorded and analyzed with the aid of the International Business Machines (IBM) Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 23; IBM® Armonk, New York, USA. and presented using descriptive statistics. Chi-square test was used to test for association between nonparametric variables while Pearson's correlation was used in assessing the relationship between corresponding finger and toe mean ridge counts. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Figure 1: Scanned images showing the different fingerprint patterns: (a) Arch, (b) Loop, (c) Whorl

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Figure 2: Scanned images showing the different toe print patterns: (a) Arch, (b) Loop, (c) Whorl

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  Results Top


Analysis of the fingerprint patterns of all the 1000 digits revealed a preponderance of loops 730 (73%) followed by arches 184 (18.4%) and finally whorls 86 (8.6%). We observed the same decreasing frequency of loops, arches, and whorls in males and females with a prevalence of 71.2%, 22.4%, 6.4%, and 74.8%, 14.4%, 10.8%, respectively. Each of the 10 fingers of the right and left hands predominantly had the loop pattern while whorls were the least common pattern [Table 1]. This was the trend in most fingers of both males and females. However, whorls and arches were distributed in an equal proportion on the right (12% each) and left (14% each) ring fingers as well as the left index finger (16% each) in females while the left little finger in males lacked whorls [Table 2]. The highest frequency of loops was seen in the left little finger in males (86%) while the highest distribution of whorls (18%) and arches (32%) was seen on the right and left index fingers of females and males, respectively [Table 2]. We compared the average fingerprint patterns on the right and left hands and found that the loop pattern is predominant on the female left-hand digits (75.6%) while the arch pattern was commonly seen on the male left-hand digits (23.2%). The whorls were commonly seen in females and on both right and left hands in equal proportions (10.8% each). There was a significant association between gender and the fingerprint patterns of the combined digits of each hand (right, P = 0.031 and left, P = 0.013) [Table 3]. However, there was no significant association between gender and fingerprint patterns on each specific finger (P ≥ 0.05).
Table 1: Distribution of patterns on each finger in the study population

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Table 2: Distribution of patterns on each finger based on gender

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Table 3: Association between gender and fingerprint patterns on both hands

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Likewise, the 1000 toes evaluated for prints showed a predominance of the loop pattern 797 (79.7%), followed by the arches 151 (15.1%) and finally the whorls 52 (5.2%). The prevalence of the loops in males and females was 79.6% and 79.8%, respectively. The arches and whorls had a prevalence of 17.6%, 2.8% and 12.6%, 7.6% in males and females, respectively. In both males and females, the most common print pattern on each toe was the loop pattern followed by the arches and finally the whorls [Table 4]. However, the absence of whorls was noted in the right 2nd and 4th toes: left 2nd and 5th toes in males and the left 5th toe in females. The left 5th and 3rd toes in females had the highest distribution of loops (90%) and whorls (14%), respectively, while the right and left big toes in males had the highest frequency of arches in equal proportion (30%) [Table 5]. Averagely, loop (81.5%) and whorl (8%) patterns were predominantly distributed on the right foot in males and females, respectively. In addition, the highest distribution of the arches was seen in the left foot of males (17.2%). Using Chi-square, we established a significant association between gender and the toe print pattern of combined digits on each foot, as depicted in [Table 6] (P = 0.041 and 0.023 on the right and left, respectively). However, there was no significant association between gender and the print patterns on each specific toe (P ≥ 0.05).
Table 4: Distribution of patterns on each toe in the study population

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Table 5: Distribution of patterns on each toe based on gender

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Table 6: Association between gender and toe print patterns on both feet

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The mean ridge counts in each digit of the hands and feet are shown in [Table 7]. We used Pearson's correlation test to establish a correlation between the mean ridge count of the corresponding hand and feet digits. The mean ridge count of the right-hand digits and the corresponding right foot digits showed a weak positive correlation, and this was statistically significant in the 3rd to 5th corresponding right digits (0 < r < 0.5) (P ≤ 0.05) [Table 8]. The mean ridge count of the 3rd to 5th right digits showed a statistically significant strong positive correlation in females (0.5 ≤ r < 1) (P = 0.000). A significant weak positive correlation was observed in the right corresponding digits in females (0 < r < 0.5) (P = 0.007). The mean ridge count of the right corresponding digits in males did not show any significant correlation [Table 9] and [Table 10].
Table 7: Descriptive statistics of finger ridge count and toe ridge count according to gender

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Table 8: Correlation between the corresponding finger and toe print ridge counts

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Table 9: Correlation between the corresponding finger and toe ridge counts in males

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Table 10: Correlation between the corresponding finger and toe ridge counts in females

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The mean ridge count of the 2nd to 5th corresponding left hand and foot digits showed a statistically significant weak positive correlation [Table 8]. We report no significant correlation between the mean ridge counts of the corresponding left digits in males (P ≥ 0.05) [Table 9]. However, in females, a statistically significant weak positive correlation was observed in the mean ridge count of the 1st and 3rd corresponding left hand and foot digits (0 < r < 0.5) (P ≤ 0.05) while counts of the remaining (2nd, 4th, and 5th) corresponding left digits showed a significant strong positive correlation (0.5 ≤ r < 1) (P ≤ 0.05) [Table 10].


  Discussion Top


The findings of this study reveal that the fingerprints of the Anioma people of Delta State, Nigeria, have abundant loops, followed by the arch ridge patterns. The whorl pattern was the least prevalent in both hands and both genders. This was different from the findings by Eboh[21] who used the ink method to study the fingerprint patterns of the Aniomas and Urhobos of Nigeria and documented the preponderance of loops followed by whorls then arches in both ethnic groups. Furthermore, reports from other studies in literature were contrary to our findings. These include studies of other Nigerian ethnic groups such as the Hausas, Igbos, Okrikas, and Ijaws which documented the dominance of ulnar loops followed by whorls, arches, and finally, radial loops.[2],[7],[22] Ujaddughe et al.[1] demonstrated a decreasing order of loops, whorls, and arches in the Esan people of Edo State Nigeria, and this was similar to reports by Timsinha et al.,[5] Namouchi,[6] and Awuah et al.,[9] who studied Tunisian, Nepalese, and Ghanaian fingerprints, respectively. On the other hand, there is a preponderance of ulnar loops, followed by whorls, radial loops, and arches in that order among Kenyans and Tanzanians.[15]

We report an equal number of whorls and arches on both right (12% each) and left (14% each) ring fingers as well as the left index finger (16% each) in females. We also noted the absence of whorls on the left little finger in males. The highest frequency of loops was seen in the left little finger in males (86%), and this is in tandem with the findings of Eboh[21] who documented the highest distribution of loops in the little fingers of both the Aniomas and Urhobos. In the Hausas, Igbos, and Okrikas of Nigeria, the highest frequency of loops was noted on the left thumb (80%), right little finger (80%), and both right and left little fingers (79%), respectively.[2],[22] Among Tunisians and the Nepalese, the female right little finger and left thumb had the highest frequency of loops, respectively.[5],[6] The highest distribution of arches and whorls also varied in different populations.[5],[6],[20],[22],[23]

The findings of this study consequently revealed a slightly higher distribution of loops (74.8%) in females compared to males (71.2%), and this was different from the findings of Eboh[21] who used the ink method and observed slightly more loops in the Anioma males than females. We also report more whorls (10.8%) in the female fingers than in males (6.4%), and this agrees with the findings of Eboh.[21] Conversely, the Anioma males in our study had a higher frequency of arches (22.4%) than females (14.4%), and this is comparable to the reports by Eboh.[21] However, unlike Eboh,[21] our study showed a significant association between the combined finger ridge patterns of all digits in each hand and gender (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we report no significant association between gender and the pattern type when analyzed by digits, hence in forensic analysis, sexual dimorphism displayed by the cumulative effect of all digits is a better tool for sex determination than using a single digit.

Anibor et al.[7] reported more loops in males and more whorls and arches in females among the Ijaws, and this was consistent with the findings of Timsinha et al.[5] among the Nepalese. The digital dermatoglyphic study carried out on the students of Delta State University in Nigeria documented more arches in females and more whorls and loops in males although the difference between the sexes was not significant.[24] Igbigbi and Msamati[15] observed more loops among Kenyan males and Tanzanian females. Moreover, they documented a significant sexual difference in the arches, loops, and whorls in the two populations. On the contrary, their earlier study carried out in Malawians documented a lack of sexual dimorphism in the fingerprint patterns.[14] The discrepancies in the patterns of fingerprints documented in literature could be ascribed to population and racial differences. Despite using the same population group (Anioma of Nigeria), some of our findings differed from the observations of Eboh.[21] These variations could be accredited to the differences in sample size and the methodology used.

Regarding the toe print patterns, we similarly observed a preponderance of loops followed by arches then whorls in both feet of males and females. This was akin to the findings of Timsinha et al.[5] and different from previous reports by Hart and Otobo[3] and Igbigbi and Msamati[25] who documented more arches, followed by loops and whorls. The females of the Anioma tribe had more loops and whorls than their male counterparts who had more arches. Likewise, the Urhobo females have been reported to have more loops and whorls.[26] On the contrary, more loops and arches were observed among the females from Ogoni and Hausa ethnic groups in Nigeria.[3],[23],[27]

The left 5th toe of females from our study had the highest distribution of loops (90%), and this contrasted with the reports by Timsinha et al.,[5] Igbigbi and Msamati,[25] and Abue et al.[23] who reported the highest distribution of loops in the 1st digit (hallux) among the Nepalese, Zimbabweans, and Hausas of Nigeria, respectively. This high frequency of loops on the hallux was attributed to the X chromosome in females that is responsible for a higher number of ridges in the hallucal pattern.[23] The Zimbabwean population studied showed an absence of loops in the 4th and 5th digits in males.[25]

In the current study, the female left 3rd toe had the highest distribution of whorls (14%). This concurs with Timsinha et al.[5] but contrasts with reports by Hart and Otobo[3] who documented more whorls on the big toes of Ogoni females in Nigeria. In Zimbabweans, Igbigbi and Msamati[25] observed very few whorls on the toes and these were restricted to the 1st digit. We report the absence of whorls on the right and left 2nd toes, right 4th toe, and the left 5th digit/small toe in males as well as the left 5th toe in females. This was in accordance with Hart and Otobo[3] who reported the absence of whorls in males and also in the small toe. Among the Nepalese, the absence of whorls was demonstrated in the 2nd and 5th right toes in females and 5th left toe in both males and females.[5] The highest frequency of arches in our study was noted on the right and left big toes in males (30%). This corresponds to the findings of Abue et al.[27] who also demonstrated a significant difference in the arch distribution in both sexes. Timsinha et al.[5] documented the highest frequency of whorls in the 5th left toe in males. Akin to our findings, these scholars did not establish any significant association between gender and each toe print pattern.

The male right foot and left foot toes had the highest distribution of loops (81.5%) and arches (17.2%), respectively, while the female right foot toes had the highest prevalence of whorl pattern (8%). The significant association between gender and the combined toe print patterns of all digits of each foot may imply the influence of gender on the toe print patterns in our population. However, we report no significant association between gender and the print pattern on individual toes, as was the case with the fingers. This further confirms that sexual dimorphism is better displayed by the cumulative effect of the print patterns of all digits than with each digit of the foot. Abue et al.[27] reported a significantly higher frequency of arches in the right toes than the left toes. In the Nepalese, loop and whorl patterns were more common in males while arches had a higher frequency in females although the association with side and gender was not significant. This population also showed a higher distribution of loops on the right toes while the whorls and arches were more common on the left toes.[5]

According to Bali,[17] dermatoglyphic areas of hands and feet agree closely with the developmental sequence of the embryo. The correlations are highest on homologous parts such as the fingers and toes. We observed a significant weak positive correlation between the finger and toe ridge counts of the corresponding 3rd to 5th right digits and 2nd to 5th left digits in the studied population as well as the 1st corresponding digits bilaterally and 3rd left digits in females (0 < r < 0.5) (P ≤ 0.05). The statistically significant strong positive correlation between the ridge counts of the corresponding 3rd to 5th right digits and 2nd, 4th, and 5th left digits in females provides a useful tool in the identification of unknown mutilated body parts after sexual determination. For instance, the ridge counts of these upper limb digits when present may be used to determine the ridge count of the corresponding ipsilateral toe and vice versa in females, hence increasing the chance for prediction of a missing digit. On the contrary, Timsinha et al.[5] conducted a comparative sex-wise study of fingerprints in relation to the toe prints and evaluated if any correlation existed with each other in the same individual. They found no direct link in the presence of a particular print pattern in the fingers and toes of the same individual.


  Conclusion Top


The study has clearly shown that sexual dimorphism is displayed only by a combination of the print patterns in all digits of a limb as against individual digits. Using correlation of digital mean ridge counts, the right 3rd to 5th and the left 2nd, 4th, and 5th digits from either the hand or the foot in females can be used to predict the corresponding digit among the Anioma people of Nigeria, hence their importance in forensic sciences.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Ujaddughe MO, Abue AD, Izunya MA, Ezeuko VC, Eze IG, Baxter-Grillo D. Assessment of dermatoglyphic patterns and sex distribution in Esan ethnic group of Edo state, Nigeria. Int J Basic Appl Innov Res 2015;4:9-14.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Abue AD, Duru FI, Nwachukwu MI. Palmar dermatoglyphics of Nigerians residing in Lagos- Nigeria. IOSR-JDMS 2013;9:51-3.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Hart JS, Otobo TM. An investigation of the sole dermatoglyphics of Ogoni People of Niger Delta, Nigeria. Int J Pharma Res Health Sci 2019;7:2886-90.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kanchan T, Krishan K, Aparna KR, Shyamsunder S. Footprint ridge density: A new attribute for sexual dimorphism. Homo 2012;63:468-80.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Timsinha S, Kar SM, Baral MP. A comparative sex wise study of fingerprints in relation to toeprints. Int J Recent Trends Sci Tech 2014;12:164-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Namouchi I. Anthropological significance of dermatoglyphic trait variation: An intra-Tunisian population analysis. Int J Mod Anthrop 2011;4:12-27.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Anibor E, Eboh DE, Okumagba MT, Etetafia MO. Palmar and digital dermatoglyphic patterns of the Ijaws in Delta State of Nigeria. Arch Appl Sci Res 2011;3:301-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Katwal B, Timsinha S, Limbu B, Pant P. Fingerprint analysis and gender predilection among medical students of Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital. Int J Robot Res 2017;4:62-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Awuah D, Dzogbefia VP, Chattopadhyay PK. Finger dermatoglyphics of the Asante population of Ghana. Int J Innov Res Adv Stud 2017;4:333-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Pawar RM, Pawar MN. Sexual dimorphism by plantar dermatoglyphics. Indian J Basic Appl Med Res 2015;5:53-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Penrose LS. Medical significance of finger-prints and related phenomena. Br. Med J. 1968; 2: 321-325.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Igbigbi PS, Msamati BC, Ngambi TM. Plantar and digital dermatoglyphic patterns in Malawian patients with diabetes, hypertension and diabetes with hypertension. Int J Diabetes Metab 2001;9:24-31.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Igbigbi PS, Ng'ambi TM. Palmar and digital dermatoglyphic features of hypertensive and diabetic Malawian patients. Malawi Med J 2004;16:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Igbigbi PS, Msamati BC. Palmar and digital dermatoglyphic patterns in Malawian subjects. East Afr Med J 1999;76:668-71.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Igbigbi PS, Msamati BC. Palmar and digital dermatoglyphics traits of Kenyan and Tanzanian subjects. West Afr J Med 2005;2:26-30.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Jaiyeoba-Ojigho EJ, Odokuma IE, Igbigbi PS. Comparative study of fingerprint patterns of two ethnic groups: A Nigerian study. J Coll Med Sci Nepal 2019;15:270-5.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Bali RS. Genetic intercorrelation between finger and toe patterns. Z Morphol Anthropol 1968;H3:244-72.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Rolian C, Lieberman DE, Hallgrímsson B. The coevolution of human hands and feet. Evolution 2010;64:1558-68.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Naing L, Winn T, Rusli BN. Practical issues in calculating the sample size for prevalence studies. Arch Orafac Sci 2006;1:9-14.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
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Oghenemavwe EL, Osaat RS. An improvise Easy digital method for palmar and plantar dermatoglyphics. Biosci Bioeng 2015;1:85-80.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Eboh DE. Digital dermatoglyphic patterns of Anioma and Urhobo students in two tertiary institutions of Delta State, Southern Nigeria. J Biomed Sci 2012;11:90-6.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Oladipo GS, Alabi SA, Paul JN, Alalibo O, Uzomba GC, Robert FO. Comparison of digital patterns in Igbos and Okrika people of Southern Nigeria. Sch J Med Case Rep 2018;6:440-5.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Abue AD, Ibeabuchi M, Didia BC. Dermatoglyphics loop pattern frequency and percentage on the toes of Nigerian in Hausa ethnic Groups. Glob Adv Res J Med Med Sci 2013;2:229-30.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Odokuma EI, Igbigbi PS. Digital dermatoglyphics in students of Delta State University, Nigeria. J Exp Clin Anat 2005;4:30-2.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Igbigbi PS, Msamati BC. Plantar and digital dermatoglyphic characteristics of Zimbabwean subjects. East Afr Med J 2001;78:536-9.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Igbigbi PS, Didia BC. Plantar dermatoglyphic features of the Urhobos of southern Nigeria. East Afr Med J 1999;77:12-5.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Abue A, Ujaddughe M, Kpela M. The arch pattern dermatoglyphics on the toes of Hausa ethnic group of Nigeria. Adv Anthropol 2013;3:237-9.  Back to cited text no. 27
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10]



 

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