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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2021
Volume 7 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 75-109

Online since Monday, September 27, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Difference analysis of accumulated degree-day samples in different regions of China p. 75
Weihao Zhu, Xiandun Zhai, Mengzi Yang, Maosheng Qian, Zhenhui Zhang, Yaonan Mo
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_4_21  
Background: Accumulated degree-days (ADD) refers to the temperature value and time within a certain period. More and more attention has been paid to the ADD in the study of postmortem interval (PMI) estimation. Aim and Objective: This study is to confirm whether ADD is applicable in China. Materials and Methods: We collected meteorological data of 10 different regions in China for 12 months, analyzed the distribution characteristics of ADD in different regions at different time periods, and tested the two ADD calculation methods (accumulated hourly temperature and accumulated daily average temperature), in an attempt to establish a more precise calculation method of ADD. Results: The results show that when the yearly or monthly effective temperature data is taken as the research object, the law of daily ADD mean value gradually decreases from south to north, and the average value of accumulated hourly temperature at each region is larger than the average value of accumulated daily average temperature (the difference was significant). In addition, in different periods of each day, ADD obtained at different regions is different, and the variation of its specific gravity also has a north-south difference. We take the daily average temperature as the independent variable and accumulated hourly temperature as the linear equation fitted by the dependent variable, showing a good linear relationship (0.992 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.999). At the same time, we also identify that extra caution should be exercised when using ADD in some special regions (such as Lhasa) or during the cold season of some regions. It may be unrealistic to attempt divide daily ADD into equal parts and accurately estimate PMI to a certain hour on the day of the crime. However, accurate estimation of PMI can be improved by dividing ADD on the day of the crime according to proportion of different periods and checking the time period of the final ADD value. Conclusion: At present, the study results on ADD need to be further developed. our study provides a preliminary research basis for the future establishment of an unified, simple, accurate, and suitable for the ADD model in China.
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Estimation of postmortem interval by postmortem myocardial computed tomography value p. 82
Zhiyuan An, Hongxia He, Qing Niu, Haibiao Zhu, Yucong Wang, Ran Liu, Weiliang Hou, Peng Tang, Tiantong Yang, Dong Zhao
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_40_21  
Background: The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is one of the most important topics in forensic medicine research. We speculate that with an increased PMI, the computed tomography (CT) values of different tissues may show regular changes. Purpose: To use postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) to measure the myocardial CT value (unit: Hounsfield Unit, HU) of the heart to explore its pattern in postmortem change, and to discuss whether it can serve as a new parameter for PMI estimation. Methods: A total of 10 healthy adult New Zealand rabbits were selected and then put into a 20°C incubator after being sacrificed. Within 0–156 h after death, CT scans were performed every 12 h to detect changes in the myocardial CT value of the heart over time. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the myocardial CT value of the heart and PMI. At the same time, HE and Masson were used to stain the cardiac tissue sections detected by PMCT at 0h, 48h and 156h, respectively. Results: During 0–156 h, the overall myocardial CT value showed a trend of first rising and then decreasing with the increase of PMI. The fitting regression equation was y = −2873.193 + 143.866x − 1.728x2 (x: myocardial CT value, unit: Hu; y: PMI, unit: h, R2 = 0.466, P < 0.05). During 48–156 h, the overall myocardial CT value decreased gradually with the increase of PMI. The fitting regression equation was y = −93.038 + 18.700x − 0.321x2 (x: myocardial CT value, unit: Hu; y: PMI, unit: h, R2 = 0.963, P < 0.001). The results of the morphological changes of the myocardial tissue structure after death showed that the myocardial cell structure was relatively complete at 0−48 hours after death; and the myocardial cell structure disappeared at 156 hours after death. Conclusions: Our results revealed evident postmortem changes in the myocardial CT value of the heart. Accordingly, measuring the myocardial CT value through PMCT shows promise for being used as a parameter for PMI estimation in forensic medicine and is worthy of further studies. The morphological changes of the myocardial tissue structure after death provide morphological basis for postmortem changes of tissue density, and further prove the reasons for the changes of CT value.
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Importance of sexual dimorphism of the maxillary sinus and mandibular inter coronoid distance of Vijayawada City population in Andhra Pradesh: An original research p. 91
S Supraja, A Anuradha, Vijaysrinivas Guduru, Mohammad Asif Kiresur, Mohan Kumar Pasupuleti, P Vignatha
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_31_21  
Background: Mass fatality incidents occur due to environmental, medical, vehicle, industrial, or terrorist events that can involve large numbers of victims. Identification of these victims is of utmost importance in these situations. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) may be helpful in some forensic contexts, offering several advantages for postmortem forensic imaging. Aim: The research study aims to evaluate the sexual dimorphism of the maxillary sinus and inter coronoid distance to estimate sex by using CBCT. Materials and Methods: In 40 CBCT scans of 20 males and 20 females, maxillary sinuses height, width and inter coronoid distances of mandible were measured for forensic analysis. In high quality, reconstructed images of bilateral maxillary sinuses, height, and width were measured, and in mandible, inter coronoid was measured in axial view. Results were tabulated and analyzed using an unpaired t-test and discriminant function analysis used to compare differences in the measured parameters between males and females. Results: Mean values of inter coronoid in males and females are (♂ =88.1, ♀ =78.1). The maxillary sinus right side height and width (♂ =32.2, ♀ =24.6) (♂ =19.7, ♀ =19.6) left side height and width (♂ =32.7, ♀ =23.6) (♂ =18.1, ♀ =17.8), respectively. A statistically significant (P < 0.05) difference was found in maxillary sinus and inter coronoid distance between males and females. Results showed significantly larger dimensions of maxillary sinus and inter coronoid distance in males compared to females. The correct predictive accuracy rate of sex determination was 100% in females and 90% in males with overall accuracy of 95%. Conclusion: The present study showed the importance of maxillary sinus dimensions and inter coronoid distance in sex estimation using cone-beam computed tomography in forensic medicine.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Deceptive forensics and the “generalized” negation of the evidences p. 96
Qi YaPing
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_9_19  
Deceptive interrogation, undercover investigation, special information, and covert spying may be used as deceptive evidentiary acts. By Article 52 of the Criminal Procedure Law, these methods must undergo the examination of the admissibility of evidence in the trial stage. How interpretate obtaining evidence by deception such judicial postmortem review should include the necessity of investigation and the legality of investigation. The sources of information examined should not only be limited to the defendant's confession and prosecution files but also include the evidence of personal testimony, intelligence sources, and material evidence sources, especially the appropriate presentation of investigation files. In a case, the necessity, possibility, and possibility of distortion of the means of obtaining evidence determine whether the specific evidence has the legality of evidence. Documents must be able to truthfully reflect the implementation process of specific evidence in the case.
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Recent advances in forensic odontology: An overview p. 105
P Aishwarya Menon, N Anoop Kumar
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_41_20  
Forensic odontology is a branch of forensic sciences that uses the skill of a dentist in personal identification during mass calamities, sexual assault, and child abuse to name a few. Forensic odontology is an evolving science and has a greater scope of development. Recent advances in the field of genetics and molecular biology have contributed to the rapid growth of forensic odontology. In case of a crime scene, forensic odontologists play a major role in investigating and interpreting dental evidence. Forensic odontologists utilize the knowledge of dentistry in bite mark analysis, fixation of identity in mass disasters, and age estimation. Thus, the duty and responsibility of forensic odontologists has increased in recent years. Therefore, practicing dentists and dental students should be made aware of the available newer technologies and its use in forensic dentistry. This article gives an overview of recent advances used in identification in forensic dentistry.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Amendments to the abortion law in India: Is it progressive enough? p. 109
Smitha Rani
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_24_21  
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