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   2017| January-March  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 31, 2017

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Infanticide: A Concept
Arneet Arora, Jayanthi Yadav, Sanjay Kumar Yadav, Hans Raj Singh
January-March 2017, 3(1):42-46
Infanticide is killing of a child <12 months of age by a mother who has not fully recovered from the effects of pregnancy, giving birth and lactation, and suffers some degree of mental disturbance. However, in India, infanticide means unlawful destruction of a newly born child and is regarded as murder in law and is punishable under section 302 completely neglecting postpartum psychiatric state of mothers' mind. Several studies have indicated a high incidence of postpartum depression in mother of developing as well as developed countries. The lack of awareness in medical fraternity, legal experts, and society leads to miscarriage of justice. In this article, we have compared legal status of infanticide in various countries vis-a-vis India and thus tried to arrive at a more humane and pragmatic approach in cases of infanticide keeping in mind the psychological state of mother, gender inequality, weak public health infrastructure, and the prevalent practice of homicide of unwanted/female child. A psychiatric or medical assessment model of mother by panel of experts in case of infanticide should be evolved. Information and awareness of postpartum psychiatric illness among medical professionals, legal persons, and society is an important aspect.
  9,427 1,054 1
Analysis of Milk Tea as a New Mixed Drug Substance in China
Binling Zhu, Liang Meng, Kefang Zheng
January-March 2017, 3(1):18-21
Among the popular mixed drugs in China, the oral solution shenxianshui and the floury drug milk tea have recently emerged. In 2014, 123 bags of milk tea included in 14 cases were tested qualitatively and quantitatively, and the test results provided a basis for drug detection, prosecution, and sentencing. More than two drug components were detected in milk tea, which was characterized as a fragrant beige, yellow, or brown powder. The detection rates of methylamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and ketamine in milk tea were 36.6%, 50.4%, and 76.4%, respectively, and the concentrations of MA, MDMA, and ketamine were 0.2–5.1, 3.2–30.1, and 0.8–176.3 mg/g, respectively, in quantitative testing.
  7,062 588 2
Determination of Chlorpyrifos in Human Blood by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Xinhua Dai, Fei Fan, Yi Ye, Fan Chen, Zhigui Wu, Xiang Lu, Qingtao Wei, Jianxia Chen, Youyi Yan, Linchuan Liao
January-March 2017, 3(1):22-25
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of chlorpyrifos in human blood samples. The chlorpyrifos and parathion (internal standard) in human blood were extracted with a mixed solvent of hexane and acetonitrile. Chlorpyrifos was well separated from the internal standard. The linear range of chlorpyrifos was 0.01–2 μg/ml in blood. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were estimated at 0.002 and 0.01 μg/ml, respectively. The inter- and intra-day precisions, accuracy, and recovery were assessed to verify this method. The results showed that the developed method is rapid, sensitive, and reliable. It is suitable for the determination of chlorpyrifos in forensic toxicological analysis and clinical diagnosis.
  5,093 573 5
A Comparison of the Identifying Features of Imitated Handwriting and Elderly Handwriting
Jing Wang
January-March 2017, 3(1):38-41
Imitated handwriting and elderly handwriting are two manifestation patterns of altered handwriting. Several similarities in features can be found in both, such as gentle movement and curved jitter. In practice, it is very easy to confuse the two patterns, leading to wrong decisions and difficulties in document examination. The key to solving these problems is to recognize the similarities and differences between imitated handwriting and elderly handwriting. This paper comprises four parts. The first part introduces the general features of elderly handwriting; the second part takes up the general characteristics of imitated handwriting; the third part analyzes the common features of imitated handwriting and elderly handwriting; the fourth part draws a conclusion about their key points of identification. Since the number of cases requiring identification of elderly handwriting and imitated handwriting is increasing every year, this paper has practical significance for document examiners and provides theoretical support to questioned document examination.
  4,587 414 -
Estimation of Postmortem Interval Using the Radiological Techniques, Computed Tomography: A Pilot Study
Jiulin Wang, Jilong Zheng, Jiaxin Zhang, Shoutao Ni, Biao Zhang
January-March 2017, 3(1):1-8
Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) has been an important and difficult subject in the forensic study. It is a primary task of forensic work, and it can help guide the work in field investigation. With the development of computed tomography (CT) technology, CT imaging techniques are now being more frequently applied to the field of forensic medicine. This study used CT imaging techniques to observe area changes in different tissues and organs of rabbits after death and the changing pattern of the average CT values in the organs. The study analyzed the relationship between the CT values of different organs and PMI with the imaging software Max Viewer and obtained multiparameter nonlinear regression equation of the different organs, and the study provided an objective and accurate method and reference information for the estimation of PMI in the forensic medicine. In forensic science, PMI refers to the time interval between the discovery or inspection of corpse and the time of death. CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and other imaging techniques have become important means of clinical examinations over the years. Although some scholars in our country have used modern radiological techniques in various fields of forensic science, such as estimation of injury time, personal identification of bodies, analysis of the cause of death, determination of the causes of injury, and identification of the foreign substances of bodies, there are only a few studies on the estimation of time of death. We detected the process of subtle changes in adult rabbits after death, the shape and size of tissues and organs, and the relationship between adjacent organs in three-dimensional space in an effort to develop new method for the estimation of PMI. The bodies of the dead rabbits were stored at 20°C room temperature, sealed condition, and prevented exposure to flesh flies. The dead rabbits were randomly divided into comparison group and experimental group. The whole-body CT scans were performed on the experimental group of rabbits at different PMIs. NeuViz dual-slice spiral CT scanner (made by Neusoft Medical in China, 2 mm × 10 mm high-speed rare earth ceramic detector) is a 360° scan that could obtain two images, capable of providing a wide range of high-speed continuous spiral scan. Max Viewer (Version: 1.0.0131, Neusoft, Shenyang, China) is a CT image viewing software developed by Neusoft Medical. The software can be used to view and process images in various common methods and to measure a number of parameters, such as length, area, angle, and CT values. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS1 Statistics 19.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). A P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. We obtained the binomial regression equation of the CT values and the related coefficient (R2). In the future, we suggests that comprehensive analyses of various indicators of different organs could establish a diversified pattern to remedy the deficiencies and make the study of PMI estimation more scientific and enhance the operability.
  4,013 532 1
A Super-resolution Reconstruction Algorithm for Surveillance Video
Jian Shao, Feng Chao, Mian Luo, Jing Cheng Lin
January-March 2017, 3(1):26-30
Recent technological developments have resulted in surveillance video becoming a primary method of preserving public security. Many city crimes are observed in surveillance video. The most abundant evidence collected by the police is also acquired through surveillance video sources. Surveillance video footage offers very strong support for solving criminal cases, therefore, creating an effective policy, and applying useful methods to the retrieval of additional evidence is becoming increasingly important. However, surveillance video has had its failings, namely, video footage being captured in low resolution (LR) and bad visual quality. In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of surveillance video and describe the manual feature registration – maximum a posteriori – projection onto convex sets to develop a super-resolution reconstruction method, which improves the quality of surveillance video. From this method, we can make optimal use of information contained in the LR video image, but we can also control the image edge clearly as well as the convergence of the algorithm. Finally, we make a suggestion on how to adjust the algorithm adaptability by analyzing the prior information of target image.
  4,103 383 1
Identification of Metallic Trace Particles of Injuring Fe-Mn Steel Hammer from Body Trauma
Chunmei Zhao, Jing Wang, Qing Chen, Fanlong Wang, Hua Feng, Liu Mengyan, Xiaobin Zhu, Li Liu
January-March 2017, 3(1):9-17
We describe an effective method for extracting metallic trace particles from injured tissue. As a validation test, we used scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry with the INCAFeature software package to analyze metallic trace particles deposited by different Fe-Mn steel hammers. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Based on the proposed method, an effective index is suggested for evaluating elemental composition. This index can be used for determining the nature and composition of residue metallic particles, which is likely to be of importance to forensic pathologists.
  3,680 417 -
Influence of Software on the Features of Laser-printed Characters
Yuanli Han, Xingzhou Han
January-March 2017, 3(1):31-37
Verifying the authenticity or otherwise of printed documents is one of the most important aspects of questioned document examination and plays a vital role in the field of forensic science. In recent years, continued developments in the quality of impression combined with ever-cheaper toner printers have allowed this technology to spread. It is now used in an increasing number of homes for all types of documents, including for criminal aims. Here, the factors that influence the printed features in text files are studied in relation to the operating system and the word processing software. The Net Application report in October 2014 showed that the market shares of Windows 7 and Windows XP were 53.05% and 17.18%, respectively. The Forrester report in October 2013 showed that the market share of Microsoft Office was more than 85%, the top three word processors being Microsoft Word 2003, 2007, and 2010. In this study, Windows XP (shortened to XP), Windows 7 (shortened to Win7), Microsoft Word 2003/2007/2010, WPS Office 2013, and the PDF format are chosen as the most common operating systems and word processing software. WPS Office was developed by the Chinese company Kingsoft Co., Ltd. and is widely used in China. A particular text file was designed and edited and was printed on a laser printer. The features of the printed characters were captured using an Anyty 3R digital microscope, Printer Expert, and X-printer devices. Coincidence comparison and outline feature extraction were used to evaluate the differences. It is shown that XP and Win7 have no effect on the printed features of text files. However, the printed features do depend to a certain extent on the word-processing software, with the PDF format having the greatest influence.
  3,318 251 -