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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2018| January-March  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 30, 2018

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Stature estimation from footprint dimensions in an adult Nigerian student population
Emeka Ambrose Okubike, Nwachukwu Mike Ibeabuchi, Olaleye Andrew Olabiyi, Michael Ebe Nandi
January-March 2018, 4(1):7-17
Examination of footprints provides important evidence in crime scene investigations and helps in stature prediction of criminals. This study aimed to derive regression equations and multiplication factors for stature estimation from footprint dimensions in adult Nigerian medical students of the University of Lagos. Using an ink pad and a stadiometer, bilateral footprints and stature, respectively, were obtained from 230 subjects (100 males and 130 females) of Nigerian ancestry, aged 18-36 years upon satisfaction of the inclusion criteria and full written consent. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Sexual dimorphism in stature and footprint dimensions was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) with males having greater values than the females. Analyses of bilateral asymmetry indicated significant left footprint preponderance (P < 0.05). There exist positive significant correlations (P < 0.05) between stature and footprint dimensions (T.1-T.5 lengths, breadth at ball [BAB], and breadth at heel [BAH]) in the males, females, and the pooled sample, with the only exception being the right and left breadths at heel in the males (r = 0.112 and 0.183, respectively). The right and left T.2 lengths exhibited the highest correlation with stature in the males, females, and the pooled sample with values of 0.704 and 0.703, 0.749 and 0.736, and 0.853 and 0.848, respectively. Footprint dimensions are significantly correlated with stature, with the footprint length (T.1-T.5) dimensions showing more reliability and accuracy in stature prediction than the footprint breadth (BAH and BAB) dimensions.
  4,846 536 3
Assessment of dental caries and oral hygiene status among twins
Priya Subramaniam, KL Girish Babu, Bharath Vardhana
January-March 2018, 4(1):18-22
The study of twins provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the genetic and nongenetic contributions to a variance of multitude of traits. Twin research has revealed the impact of a strong genetic component to the variance of many dental traits. The present study was conducted to assess the dental caries and oral hygiene status in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. A random sample of 129 MZ and DZ twin pairs aged 6-15 years were included in this study. The zygosity of twin pairs was initially recorded by facial appearance and later determined by dermatoglyphics. Dental caries and oral hygiene status were recorded in these twin pairs and the data were subjected to statistical analysis. No significant difference was observed in the mean decayed, extracted due to caries and filled teeth (deft) in primary dentition and decayed, missing and filled (DMFT) in permanent dentition scores and oral hygiene status in MZ and DZ twin pairs. The similarity observed in oral health status reflects the effects of a shared environment in MZ and DZ twin pairs.
  4,041 378 1
Sex determination using cheiloscopy and mandibular canine index as a tool in forensic dentistry
B Bhagyashree, Prakash Gadodia, Abhishek Singh Nayyar, Namrata N Patil, MP Vinod Kumar, Vinita Murgod, Swati S Paraye
January-March 2018, 4(1):23-30
Identification of a person's individuality and sex determination are important for legal as well as identification purposes. The aim of the present study was to check the reliability of cheiloscopy and mandibular canine index (MCI) in the determination of sex in an individual. The aim of this study is to analyze different lip patterns reproduced by the natural dye (vermilion) and lysochrome (Sudan Black II) dyes and to compare the MCI in males and females for the determination of sex and to check the reliability of cheiloscopy and MCI for the same. Latent lip prints were developed using natural dye (vermilion) and lysochrome (Sudan Black II) dyes and their patterns categorized according to Tsuchihashi's classification. MCI were calculated. Analysis of the two was performed. According to discriminant functional analysis, percentage accuracy for cheiloscopy in the determination of sex was found to be 55% while for MCI, the same value was 85%. Natural dye (vermilion) was found as an efficient dye compared to lysochrome (Sudan Black II) dyes for the development of latent lip prints. Both the dyes showed Type I lip print pattern to be common in males and females. Furthermore, all the parameters in MCI were found to be significant in the determination of sex in an individual. The results of the present study revealed MCI to be more reliable in the determination of sex than cheiloscopy.
  3,983 436 -
Confrontation clause after Crawford and its impact on the admissibility of forensic evidence: A comparative study on the United States and China
Xingyi Wang
January-March 2018, 4(1):40-48
Crawford is a watershed case separating hearsay exceptions and confrontation. Overruling Roberts, Crawford established a new bright-line test for Confrontation Clause. Testimonial out-of-court statements, whether reliable or not, are inadmissible unless the prosecution has shown: (a) the declarant is unavailable and (b) the defense has a prior opportunity for cross-examination. Applying Crawford's primary purpose test, testimonial out-of-court forensic reports (usually as affidavits) might not be admissible. However, Crawford underlined that the Confrontation Clause has its independent procedural values and other nonepistemic functions.
  3,551 257 -
An investigation of postmortem urotensin II receptor levels in brain and kidney tissues in a rat model of cardiac ischemia
Mustafa Talip Sener, Erol Akpinar, Elif Cadirci, Zekai Halici, Irfan Cinar, Ahmet Nezih Kok
January-March 2018, 4(1):1-6
This study aimed to investigate changes in postmortem urotensin II receptor (UTR) levels in brain and kidney tissues in a rat model of cardiac ischemia. The rats were divided into two groups: a control group and a cardiac ischemia-induced group. Cardiac ischemia was created by an intraperitoneal injection of a single lethal dose of isoproterenol (ISO; 850 mg/kg). Plasma UT, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine levels were determined 0 h postmortem. Brain and kidney UTR mRNA expression levels were determined 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postmortem. The histopathological appearance of brain and kidney tissues was also evaluated. Plasma UT and plasma creatinine levels were increased in the cardiac ischemia-induced group as compared with those in the control group (P < 0.001). Ischemia resulted in histopathological changes in brain and cerebellum tissue. The morphological evaluation revealed Purkinje cell degeneration (P = 0.037) and dark neurons (P = 0.004). The UTR expression level decreased after 1 h postmortem in the brain and after 3 h postmortem in the kidneys in the cardiac ischemia-induced group as compared with that in the control group (P < 0.001). The observed changes in UTR expression levels may be valuable in clinical practice in the field of forensic medicine. These changes may be used as a marker in postmortem evaluations of sudden death caused by ischemia-induced cardiac shock.
  3,250 386 -
Development of China's forensic science in statistics: 2005-2016
Xu Wang, He-Juan Jiao, Hai-Biao Zhu, He Yuan
January-March 2018, 4(1):59-62
In today's scientific fact-finding, forensic science bears the responsibility of ascertaining authenticity and restoring the truth. With the acceleration of China's internationalization and judicial reforms, forensic science has begun to play a prominent role in judicial trials, where its function and value have received unprecedented attention. In this article, the authors have reviewed 10 years of development in China's forensic science between 2005 and 2016.
  3,226 331 -
Narrative study on witnesses' involvement in their statements
Wen Guan, Luping Zhang
January-March 2018, 4(1):31-39
The present study, based on Labov's narrative theory, focuses on how witnesses' involvement affects their narrative reconstruction of the criminal case. Witnesses' involvement is first subcategorized, and there are two circumstances concerning their involvements, one being single suspect versus victim(s) crime and the other multiple suspects versus victim(s) crime. The present study takes four witness statements from a single suspect malicious injury case as data to further analyze the effects exerted by different witness involvements on witness statements and their corresponding representations. Results of the analysis indicate that how witnesses are involved in the criminal event exert different effects on witness statements in three aspects as follows: narrative structure, participant distribution, and language strategies. The results of this study further revealed that the more legal responsibility a witness is likely to take for the criminal event, the more transformations he would make in his narrative reconstruction of the crime.
  3,015 311 -
Lip traces in forensic science
Huma Mohd Saleem, Sonia Sodhi, Lata Kale, Mukhtadir Hashmi
January-March 2018, 4(1):63-66
Cheiloscopy is a study of lip prints which helps in the identification of humans based on lip traces. It is based on the fact that the pattern of lines on the red part of human lips is unique to each human being. The aim of the present study is to ascertain whether lip prints have the potential for assessment of sex of an individual from the configuration and to identify the most common pattern. Lip prints were collected and matched according to Suzuki and Tsushihashi's classification. The most common pattern found in female was Types I and I', while Type IV and Type V were predominant among males. Studies show that lip prints have a great potential to establish individuality, show gender variation, and remain unchanged forever.
  2,887 323 -
Study on problems in forensic DNA identification standardization in China and countermeasures for the same
Li Yuan
January-March 2018, 4(1):49-58
Forensic DNA analysis plays an important role in criminal cases, civil cases, missing persons' identification, and other truth-ascertaining activities. Selection of an appropriate laboratory for DNA testing, use of amplification reagents, management of database and other standardized operations, standardization of system for biological evidence in terms of sample collection, and sample analysis will improve the quality and credibility of the identification work. However, current forensic DNA standardization in China encounters some problems with respect to the development of standard and technical specification, standard documents, and DNA evidence review and acceptance. Thus, introduction and refinement of the standardization system require collective knowledge and continuous efforts. Moreover, standardization could not replace court review, and expert reports still should be cross-examined in courts.
  2,490 251 1