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   2021| April-June  | Volume 7 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 26, 2021

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Analysis of finger and toe prints and their corresponding correlations in the anioma people of Nigeria
Beryl Shitandi Ominde, Efe Jennifer Jaiyeoba-Ojigho, Patrick Sunday Igbigbi
April-June 2021, 7(2):39-46
Background: A comparison of the finger and toe ridge patterns can reveal their genetic interdependence. This cross-sectional study aimed at analyzing and correlating the corresponding finger and toe ridge counts. Materials and Methods: The hands and feet of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) from the Anioma tribe of Nigeria were scanned with Hewlett placard G4010 photo scanner following ethical approval. Evaluation of the finger and toe prints was carried out using AutoCAD version 2010. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of the Social Sciences version 23 and presented using descriptive statistics. Chi-square test was used to test for association between nonparametric variables while Pearson's correlation was used to assess for the relationship between corresponding finger and toe ridge counts. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The predominant finger and toe ridge patterns were loops (73%, 79.7%) followed by arches (18.4%, 15.1%) and finally whorls (8.6%, 5.2%). There was a significant association between gender and the combined print patterns of all the five digits on a limb (P ≤ 0.05). A significant positive correlation existed between the mean ridge counts of some of the corresponding fingers and toes in females. This correlation was weak in the corresponding 1st right and 1st and 3rd left digits (0 < r < 0.5) (P ≤ 0.05) and strong in the corresponding 3rd to 5th right digits and 2nd, 4th, and 5th left digits (0.5 ≤ r < 1) (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The study has clearly shown that sexual dimorphism is displayed only by a combination of the print patterns in all digits of a limb as against individual digits. Using correlation of digital mean ridge counts, the right 3rd to 5th and the left 2nd, 4th, and 5th digits from either the hand or the foot in females can be used to predict the corresponding digit among the Anioma people of Nigeria, hence their importance in forensic sciences.
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An emergence of dental tissues in the forensic medicine for the postmortem interval estimation: A scoping review
Sridevi Ugrappa, Ajay Jain
April-June 2021, 7(2):54-60
It is observed that there is not enough literature to support the usefulness of dental tissue in forensic medicine for the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). Therefore, the authors of this article have systematically reviewed the available literature to understand the most used dental tissues, the methods employed to evaluate these tissues, and their reliability in PMI estimation. A MEDLINE–PubMed search engine was used to review the literature using the keywords “teeth,” “dental tissues,” “post-mortem interval,” and “forensic dentistry” from 2001 until 2020. The most used tissue was dental pulp, but other cellular- and molecular-level dental tissues such as enamel, dentin, cementum, periodontal ligament, odontoblast, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA and RNA were also used. Based on this observation, the authors have provided the categorical classification to evaluate these dental tissues into morphological, histopathological, and molecular-level examination to understand the reliability of these dental tissues. The molecular examinations to evaluate these tissues were widely employed and emerging in the estimation of PMI as this method could provide a reliable outcome when compared with others. Since the literature reviewed was not enough to answer our questions, however, to conclude, the dental pulp is the widely used tissue so far. Further, more studies are required to authenticate the role of other dental tissues to predict the PMI at an early stage with cost-effective and most convenient techniques.
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Forensic examination of abusive head trauma in child abuse cases
Dong Zhao, Zhe Cao, Qi Wang
April-June 2021, 7(2):47-53
Abusive head trauma (AHT) in child abuse cases is rarely encountered in the practice of forensic examination in China, and such cases are rarely reported. The authors reviewed a large number of relevant domestic and foreign studies to differentiate between the definitions of AHT and shaken baby syndrome; determine the relationship between the two; and discuss their epidemiology, mechanism, and symptoms. In addition, the main points in forensic examination and strategies for preventing AHT are also summarized to help forensic workers and clinicians identify and prevent such injuries.
  1,463 193 -
Use of intraoral three-dimensional images for the identification of dental morphological traits related to ancestry estimation
Elodine Santo, Teresa Pinho, Alexandra Teixeira, Daniel Perez-Mongiovi
April-June 2021, 7(2):70-73
Victim identification through dental features is one of the main objectives of forensic dentistry. In circumstances where information regarding antemortem dental records is missing, reconstruction of a biological profile can be useful as a first step toward personal identification. This reconstructive method provides valuable information, namely regarding the individual's ancestry, through the detection and degree of expression of dental morphological traits, which may help to restrict the number of candidates for identification. Technological advances allowed the development of alternative methods for dental evaluation, that complement or substitute those already in use in clinical practice. Among these, intraoral three-dimensional (3D) images are increasingly used in dentistry, as they have a high level of accuracy and are easy to obtain and store. However, a fundamental question regarding forensic dentistry is whether they allow recognition and analysis of dental morphological traits in detail, namely those related to ancestry. In this study, we evaluated 20 teeth morphological features using intraoral 3D imaging from 77 individuals from Northern Portugal. Our results showed that it was possible to identify and classify a large part of the main morphological traits used in the estimation of ancestry. As these 3D images present sufficient morphological detail to be classified, we believe that future applications of this technique can be expected in forensic dentistry.
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Comprehensive application of multiple genetic markers in a case of half-siblings with the same father and different mothers and an avuncular relationship
Fang Liu, He Ren, Ya-Cheng Liu, Qing-Xia Zhang
April-June 2021, 7(2):61-65
Half-sibling (HS) kinship testing is more difficult and complicated.This article describes a case where we sought to establish if three children with different mothers (one boy and two girls), shared a common father. The three children and their mother,as well as the suspected father's elder brother took part in the identification. To investigate the application of multiple genetic markers in HS kinship testing,autosomal STR, Y-STR, and X-STR was performed on blood samples from the individuals of interest C1 (female), M1 (mother of C1), C2 (male), M2 (mother of C2), C3 (female), M3 (mother of C3), and UC (elder brother of the suspected biological father). The 24 Y-STR haplotypes of C2 and UC were identical, confirming that they come from the same paternal line.Among the 27 X-STRs tested in C1 and C3, 18 of them had different paternal alleles, so C1 and C3 were excluded as half-sibling kinship.39 autosomal STR were calculated by ITO method,the HSI (or AI) of the pairs C1–C3, C2–C3, and C3–UC are <1, so HS kinship between C1 and C3, and between C2 and C3 can be excluded and avuncular kinship between C3 and UC can be excluded. The HSI (or AI) of the pairs C1–C2, C1–UC, and C2–UC are much >1, which may supports HS kinship between C1 and C2 and avuncular kinship between C1 and UC, and between C2 and UC.15 autosomal STR were calculated by discriminant function, DHS3 > DR3 between C1 and C2, and thus they could be HS. DHS3 < DR3 between C1 and C3, and between C2 and C3, so C1 and C3, and C2 and C3 may be unrelated individuals.Based on the above results, we can conclude that a HS relationship may be existed between C1 and C2. There may be a avuncular relationships between C1 and UC and between C2 and UC. HS relationships between C3 and C1 and between C3 and C2 as well as an avuncular relationship between C3 and UC were not supported by this study. The application of multiple genetic marker testing should be more regularly applied in the evaluation of HS and avuncular relationships. Increasing the number of related individuals tested when evaluating kinship relationships provides more data for better identification.
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Identification of half-sisters from different mothers by autosomal and X chromosomal short tandem repeats: A case study
Jinpei Zhang, Shicheng Hao, Yan Liu, Li Yuan
April-June 2021, 7(2):66-69
Complex kinship identification such as half-sibling identification is a difficult task in forensic biology Here we represented an approach in dealing with half-sisters from different mothers, with the combination of autosomal and X chromosomal short-tandem repeats (STRs) data. X chromosomal STRs can offer additional information, especially in some cases where autosomal STRs alone may not provide enough information for an accurate opinion. In this case, half-sister or unrelated relationship between two women (S1 and S2) with different mothers were distinguished. 23 autosomal and 31 X chromosomal STRs of S1, S2, S1's mother (M1), S2's mother (M2) and S1's grandmother (G1) were profiled with three different commercial kits. As to X-chromosome STRs, likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated by FamLinkX with consideration of linkage, linkage disequilibrium, and mutations. When only the profiles of the two individuals (S1 and S2) were available, LRs between S1 and S2 were 1.1110 × 102 based on 23 autosomal STRs and 3.2257 om107 based on 31 X chromosomal STRs. When the maternal genotypes were taken into consideration, LRs increased to 2.5297 × 103 and 3.0563 × 1018. Therefore, both the DNA profiles of each mothers and X chromosomal STRs are important in dealing with the identification of half-sisters from different mothers.
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